100 ESSENTIAL BRAZILIAN SONGS YOU MUST HEAR Part 6: The 1990s

If there is one word can define the 1990s, that is globalization. With Brazil’s growing openness to the globalized nineties’ culture, greatest influence of foreign musical trends was unavoidable. The youth of that period would increasingly enjoy dancing -in night clubs- to the new electronic rhythms, such as techno, trance and house.

On the other hand, Brazilians revalorized their own historical roots. The great originality and variety of the nation’s music is observed in the creative fusion of diverse influences such as samba, sertaneja, Brazilian rock, samba-reggae, baião, forró, lambada, axé, electronic music, among many others.

Globalization also made easy for Brazilian music to gain worldwide recognition. After pioneers like Carmen Miranda, many other names gave Brazilian popular music international publicity during that decade.

In the 90s, other styles like funk carioca and hip hop became popular among young people of the country’s Southeast, whereas the brega style “resisted” and was renewed, remaining popular especially in the North and Northeast regions.

These are the songs I chose from this period:

74) João Gilberto – “Eu Sambo Mesmo ” (1991) 

One of bossa nova’s fathers, João Gilberto is a consummated artist since the fifties, with enormous international recognition since then.

His 1991 album João, with orchestrations by Clare Fischer, featured songs in English, French, Italian, and Spanish, plus old sambas and his version of Caetano Veloso’s “Sampa”. This song (“I Really Samba”) is the opening track of this wonderful album.

 

75) Sergio Mendes – “Magalenha” (1992) 

Sergio Mendes doesn’t need much introduction. Superstar from the 60’s, with a prolific career and enormous international success, he is “indelibly identified with the pop side of the bossa nova boom”.

“Magalenha” was composed by musician Carlinhos Brown and is the second track of Sergio Mendes studio album Brasileiro. The energetic vocals by Carlinhos and the explosive rhythm of the Bahian percussionists are just electrifying … I dare you not to dance when you listen to it!

“Magalenha” appears in the soundtrack of the 1998 film Dance with Me .

 

76) Daniela Mercury – “O Canto da Cidade(1992) 

“The Queen of Axé” Daniela Mercury is well known for popularizing axé music, not only throughout Brazil, but also internationally. As a matter of fact, she enjoys a goddess-like worship in Salvador da Bahia.

Her second album, O Canto da Cidade (1993) was a national phenomenon, establishing her as the most popular Brazilian performer of the early ’90s. The title track of this album (“The tune of the city”), a celebration of her native Salvador, became a sensation and topped the charts. Not only was O Canto da Cidade the first Brazilian album to top a million in sales, but it remains her best-selling album to date, with millions of copies sold -and it continues to sell today.

 

77) Timbalada- “Beija Flor” (1993)

In the late 1980s the talented drummer Carlinhos Brown started to form percussion ensembles in his hometown Salvador; he simply gathered people in the streets and taught them basic percussion patterns. Eventually these gatherings grew into a band called Timbalada.  Timbalada is credited with the revival of the timbal (a kind of drum used in candomblé), which had been nearly extinct before they began featuring it. Moreover, the band melted the rhythms of Bahia with those of Afro-American and Afro-Caribbean origin, such as samba reggae and axé and added some pop elements; the result is an interesting, extremely prototype sound. The band’s aesthetics also has a distinctive character: the vocalists make heavy use of body painting, which provides a tribal touch and adds to their originality. Timbalada is also well known for its regular participation in Salvador de Bahia’s Carnival.

Due to their innovative music and particular aesthetics, it didn’t take long until the band caught the attention of Brazilians -and the entire world, gaining deserved, huge popularity. Their first album, released in 1993, has one of their major hits, Beija-flor (“Hummingbird”).

 

78) Ivan Lins – “Madalena” (1993)

Songwriter, vocalist, and pianist, Ivan Lins came to fame in Brazil in 1970 when Elis Regina recorded his song “Madalena” and made it a hit. He has been an active performer and songwriter of Brazilian popular music and jazz since then, with numerous of his compostions recorded by remarkable Brazilian and foreign and artists, such as George BensonMichael Bublé,  Ella FitzgeraldQuincy Jones, Sarah VaughanSting and Barbra Streisand.

He did release his own version of “Madalena” in his 1993 Minha História; in here though I include this marvellous, live version with Elis Regina, featured in the album Elis Regina e Ivan Lins – Juntos (Ao Vivo).

 

79) Chico Science & Nação Zumbi – “Da Lama Ao Caos” (1994)

From the mud flats of his natal Recife, Chico Science began to experiment with music, blending maracatu with reggae, funk, rap, and rock. The mixture of ancient folkloric Northeastern rhythms with world pop and electronic music would become referred as mangue beat (“mud beat”). Mangue beat eventually grew into a musical movement, one of the most characteristics of Brazil’s musical scene of the 90s.

After being recognized in his region, Chico Science joined Nação Zumbi; their first collaborative album, Da Lama Ao Caos, was released in 1994, from which the eponymous track was a major hit.

 

80) Mamonas Assassinas – “Pelados em Santos” (1995)

Characterized as a satirical rock band, Mamonas Assassinas‘s sound consisted of a mixture of pop rock with influences of popular genres such as sertanejo, brega, pagode, forró, and vira. The only studio album recorded by the band, Mamonas Assassinas, with the hits Pelados em Santos“, “Vira-Vira” and “Robocop Gay” had a meteoric success, rapidly becoming diamond-certified.

Unfortunately, their career was tragically interrupted in March 2, 1996, when the group was the victim of a plane crash which caused the death of all its members, and a great national commotion. In spite of their brief success, the band continues influencing the national musical scene and being celebrated even now, more than two decades after its end.

 

81) Carlinhos Brown – “A Namorada” (1996)

Not only a talented percussionist, Carlinhos Brown is also a greatly praised composer and vocalist. After his success with Timbalada (see above), he decided to display all his musical virtues in his solo album Alfagamabetizado. For the album’s release, Carlinhos Brown performed many shows throughout Brazil, The United Status, Japan and Europe. The track “A Namorada” was the biggest success, even being included on the soundtrack of the film Speed 2, where he also made a cameo appearance performing the song.

 

82) Skank- “Garota Nacional” (1996)

Belo Horizonte band Skank became one of the most popular bands in Brazil in the ’90s. Mixing influences of pop music, reggae, ska and rock & roll, Skank reached the market with their first eponymous album. Their 1996 album O Samba Poconé includes one of their greatest hits, Garota Nacional. Although “Garota Nacional” literally translates to “national girl”, the song is not about the women of Brazil, as usually believed: it refers to the “girls of Bar Nacional”, a bar and nightclub in Belo Horizonte famous in the early 1990s for its beautiful female patrons.

83) Simone and Martinho da Vila – “Ex-Amor” (1996)

One of the greatest Brazilian female artists of all time, Simone is a sensuous singer with a signature low, mellow voice. Although having a more activist repertory in her beginnings, she later abandoned it in favor of more mainstream, romantic songs, with which she has enjoyed international success.

In this song she unites her voice with that of another iconic MPB and samba singer/composer: Martinho da Vila.

 

84) Chitãozinho e Xororó – “Luar Do Sertão” (1996)

With a 30 year-career, 30 released albums and the impressive 30,000,000 sold copies, Chitãozinho e Xororó are a real phenomenon in Brazil. The two singers were the first artists to successfully promote the fusion of “redneck music” (caipira) with urban pop, opening the field for a millionaire craze which would become known as sertanejo romântico, a genre that ultimately took all regions of Brazil -and many other countries. Indeed, Chitãozinho e Xororó have performed with artists such as Billy Ray Cyrus, Reba McEntire and the Bee Gees.

This song, Luar do Sertão (Hinterlands Moonlight in English) is a popular, old Brazilian song, one of the most recorded Brazilian songs of all time. Its simple verses praise the life in sertão (English: hinterlands or countryside). It appears in their album Classicos Sertanejos and counts with the participation of Simone.

 

85) Quarteto Jobim Morelenbaum – “A Felicidade” (1999)

A felicidade (“Happiness”) was composed in 1958 by Antônio Carlos Jobim and Vinícius de Moraes for the film Orfeu Negro (Black Orpheus). The theme of this mesmerizing bossa nova song is the fragility of happiness: “Tristeza não tem fim. Felicidade sim” (“Sadness has no ending. Happiness does”).

“A felicidade” has had many re-recordings throughout the years; I love this one by the Quarteto Jobim-Morelenbaum, which features Antonio Carlos Jobim’s son, guitarist/vocalist Paulo Jobim, and his grandson, pianist/vocalist Daniel Jobim, along with cellist Jacques Morelenbaum and his wife, vocalist Paula Morelenbaum. With the exception of Daniel, all of the group’s members were members of Jobim’s final band before his death in 1994.

 

86) Ney Matogrosso – “Poema” (1999)

Famous for his singular countertenor voice, but mostly for his provocative stage costumes, make-up and daring movements, Ney Matogrosso has always been regarded as a controversial character. What nobody can deny is that Ney is an extremely talented artist. In fact, he was ranked by Rolling Stone as the third greatest Brazilian singer of all time.

He is best known as a member of the glam rock group Secos & Molhados, a phenomenon band during the 1970s. After the band split up, Ney pursued a successful solo career in Brazil and abroad, obtaining several Gold and Platinum records.

This song (“Poem”) belongs was released in Olhos de Farol, an album that celebrated 25 years of Ney’s solo career.

 

Coming soon:

  • The 2000s – 2010s

 

100 ESSENTIAL BRAZILIAN SONGS YOU MUST HEAR Part 5: The 1980s

With the end of Brazil’s dictatorship, a renewed feeling of freedom invaded the youth of the 80s. This generation of artists, free to openly portray their feelings and desires, gives rise to what would be called BRock, or Brazilian rock. Emblematic bands of this decade are Blitz, Paralamas do Sucesso, Titãs, Ultraje a Rigor and Legião Urbana. Irreverent and uncompromised, they would be frequently accused of being superficial, banal and alienated; their songs though demonstrated they were nothing like that: they would often criticize the 80s social reality, particularly consumerism and the influence of television.

The year 1985 is certainly engraved in the memory of rock lovers: the colossal festival Rock in Rio takes place. Rock in Rio counted with the presence of the world’s greatest rock artists such as QueenRod Stewart, AC/DC and Yes; it remains in history as the largest Rock Festival of all time, with an audience of nearly 1.5 million people.

Although rock and pop were the predominant genres in Brazil during the 80s, other musical styles would gain increasing popularity by the end of the decade, such as sertanejo, pagode, afro and axé music.

This is my list of great Brazilian songs of the 1980s:

63) Rita Lee – “Lança Perfume” (1980) 

For the Brazilians, Rita Lee is one of their dearest artists. With an impressive record of 55 million albums sold –Brazil’s highest grossing female artist of all time- the “Queen of Brazilian Rock” is a not only a singer, but also a talented songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, actress, writer and activist.

Former member of the influential group Os Mutantes, Lee has participated in major revolutions in the world of music and society. Her songs, often with an acid or feminist tone, have become ubiquitous in the charts throughout the latest 50 years.

Lança perfume is one of her most popular songs; it makes reference to an aromatic spray often used as a recreational drug, very popular in Brazil.

 

64) Gal Costa – “Festa do Interior” (1981) 

Essential Brazilian artist, one of the most amazing voices, Gal Costa is known for her perfect pitch and incredibly high notes. Timeless and always relevant, Gal is constantly reinventing herself: she went from a Tropicalia icon in the 60s, a hippie muse in the 70s to a more pop repertoire in the 80s and nowadays, in her latest albums, she has been even exploring electronic music.

This song (English “Countryside Party”) from her 1981 double album Fantasia became her biggest ever hit, going multi-platinum by the end of the year.

 

65) Djavan – “Samurai(1982) 

Djavan is a singer, songwriter, producer and guitarist, highly praised not only in Brazil, but internationally: his songs have been recorded by Al Jarreau, Carmen McRae, the Manhattan Transfer, and many other fundamental Brazilian artists.

Djavan combines traditional Brazilian rhythms with popular music drawn from the Americas, Europe and Africa; his songs are known for their “colors”: refined and poetic, but utterly simple at the same time.

In 1982, he recorded the universally acclaimed album Luz, which has been described as a “pop explosion (…) a succession of hits with exquisite use of the technological resources of the time”. From this album comes the song Samurai, in which Stevie Wonder is a guest star.

 

66) Gonzaguinha – “O que é, O que é?” (1982)

A major pop star in Brazil in the ‘70s and ‘80s, Gonzaguinha was the son of the famous baião artist Luiz Gonzaga. Although he decided to follow his father’s footsteps, he was a great singer in his own right, adopting a completely different style. Being born and raised in a poor Rio de Janeiro favela (shanty town) made him quite adept at writing about the social and political conditions of Brazil’s poor; his aggressive and unappealing lyrics in the eyes of the media earned him the nickname “Cantor rancor” (Grudge singer). With the beginning of the political opening in the second half of the 1970s, he began to modify the discourse and composed songs of more pleasant tone; his fame skyrocketed. He was at the peak of this popularity when, in 1991 he died in a car crash.

This is one of his most recognizable songs, it was released in the album Caminhos do Coração.

 

67) Lulu Santos – “Como Uma Onda (Zen Surfismo)” (1983)

Brazilian superstar with high-selling discography, Lulu Santos is one of the most emblematic figures of the 80s, a synonym with Brazilian pop music.

This song (English “Like a wave”) was created by Lulu himself together with journalist and writer Nelson Motta, especially for the soundtrack of the movie Garota Dourada. Its lyrics describe the pleasures of an idealized beach culture, ultimately  becoming a reflection on the contradictions of a youth oscillating between grandiose delusions and bohemian escapism. It was a smash hit. According to Rolling Stone Brazil, this song is the proof … “of Lulu’s indisputable dominance in the art of creating the Perfect pop”.

 

68) Lobão e os Ronaldos  – “Me Chama” (1984)

Multi-talented Lobão (“Big Wolf“, in reference to the Disney’s Big Bad Wolf character), is a singer-songwriter, composer, multi-instrumentalist, writer, publisher, television host and media personality. Aside from his talent as musician, he has a reputation for having little inhibition in expressing his opinions and for publicly criticising fellow musicians, which led to a notable number of controversies and enmities.

With the album Ronaldo Foi pra Guerra, the only album he released accompanied by the band Os Ronaldos, Lobão had the biggest success of his career, the super hit “Me Chama” (“Call Me”).

 

69) Ultraje a Rigor – “Inútil” (1985)

Ultraje a Rigor is one of the most important Brazilian rock bands. With their simple and danceable melodies, and the irreverent tone Roger Moreira’s voice gave to the ironic lyrics, the band had all the ingredients to reach the Brazilian youth of the 80s.

Their first LP, Nós Vamos Invadir sua Praia (We’re going to invade his beach) was a massive success: it was the first Brazilian rock LP to receive gold and platinum status. From this album comes Inútil (“Useless”), one of the most important protest songs of Brazilian rock, a compendium of the frustrations common to all Brazilian at the time.

 

70) Paralamas do Sucesso – “Alagados” (1986)

Paralamas do Sucesso is the most successful Brazilian rock band, with a long-lasting career since 1977, always with the same line-up: Herbert Vianna, Bi Ribeiro and João Barone.  Their success has surpassed the Brazilian borders, making then a recognizable band in Latin America and Europe; furthermore, they have been many times awarded at the Latin Grammy, MTV Brasil and Multishow awards.

Alagados (“Flooded”) gives an account of the harsh life in Brazilian favelas during the period of intense socioeconomic crisis that hit the country in the 1980s. The song make particularly reference to Rio de Janeiro: “…the city with open arms in the postcards, but closed fists in real life”

 

71) Titãs – “Comida” (1987)

Another emblematic Brazilian rock band that blossomed in the ’80s, Titãs (“The Titans”) became known for their intelligent lyrics, with poetic references and social criticism. The group eventually became mainstream, adopting a more pop approach and enjoying massive recognition.

Jesus não Tem Dentes no País dos Banguelas (“Jesus has no teeth in the land of the toothless”) is Titãs’ most important album; it was a huge commercial success (double platinum certified), but also highly acclaimed by the critics. One of the best tracks of this album is Comida (“Food”). Its lyrics affirm that people’s needs go beyond their own material existence -represented by food- requiring cultural and existential necessities, such as fun and art. Comida frequently served as the motto for student protests, which increased even more the band’s reputation.

72) Legião Urbana – “Que país é esse? ” (1987)

Legião Urbana was formed during Brazil’s economic crisis of the ’80s, when corruption became deeply rooted in the country’s politics. This was Renato Russo’s motivation to create his band “Urban Legion”. Russo’s incandescent lyrics, portraying the frustrations of an entire generation, gave voice to a multitude of desperate people and became a phenomenon of popularity throughout Brazil.

The band’s success was cemented in 1987, with Que País É Este (“What Country Is This”). They developed a devoted following, and the band came to carry the nickname “Religião Urbana” (meaning “Urban Religion”).

While they disbanded officially in 1996 after Russo’s death due to AIDS complications, Legião Urbana is still one of Brazil’s most famous rock bands.

 

73) Cazuza – “Ideologia” (1988)

Vocalist of the first Brazilian rock band Barão Vermelho and highly popular as a solo artist, Cazuza left his personal mark on Brazilian music through his songs, which continue to be constantly recorded by other artists, in spite of his early death in 1992 due to AIDS complications, at 32 years old.

Ideologia (“Ideology”) is the title track of Cazuza’s third album, which was composed in partnership with Roberto Frejat. It is one of the singer’s most successful songs; its beautiful, compelling lyrics were written by Cazuza after discovering he was HIV positive: “…My pleasure now is life-threatening, my sex and drugs have not rock ’n’ roll…”

 

Coming soon:

  • The 1990s
  • The 2000s – 2010s

 

100 ESSENTIAL BRAZILIAN SONGS YOU MUST HEAR Part 1: Overview


Music is one of the most powerful cultural expressions of a nation, a sort of thermometer which reflects the history and mood of the people at a certain time, whether they feel happy, troubled, or oppressed.

And this is certainly true for Brazil: throughout the years music has been drawing the face of the country, mirroring Brazilians’ joy, uncertainties and longings…

Whoever has been in Brazil has most likely realized that music is deeply rooted into Brazilians’ DNA. Music is everywhere, accompanying every single mundane activity: Brazilians have fun with music, travel with music, prepare feijoada with music. And they dance… When I first visited Brazil I was amazed to see that just by hearing samba in the street, everybody -kids and grown-ups alike- would start dancing, as something natural, without inhibitions of any kind…

I love Brazil, its beautiful nature, its people, culture and music… Thus, I decided to pay a tribute to Brazil’s music by choosing 100 among the most representative songs of all times… I believe that after listening to all these songs you will realize -like I did- how timeless Brazil’s music is…

This introductory post will help you understand Brazilian music history and styles. More posts will follow presenting 100 iconic Brazilian songs in chronological order.

I hope you enjoy it!

Música do Brasil – Overview

Brazilian music originated from the fusion of indigenous, European and African elements, the latter brought mainly by Portuguese colonizers and the African slaves.

Until the 19th century, Portugal (and Europe for that matter) is the main gateway to most rhythms that would built Brazilian music, both erudite and popular. With the passage of time, African melodic and rhythmic elements begin to exert increasing influence on popular music, which would thus acquire the characteristic Brazilian sound that consolidates in the twentieth century, mainly through the diffusion of the genres lundu, frevo, choro and samba (see below). The indigenous practically left no trace in mainstream music, except in some regional folkloric genres.

In the twentieth century there is an extraordinary flowering of Brazil’s music. It is the period when national music gains autonomy and identity, although it never ceases – rather increases – the blend with new foreign rhythms. The fundamental work of Heitor Villa Lobos is the first great landmark of erudite Brazilian music, later developed by many other composers. During the same period, popular music gains the respect of elites and consolidates genres that would become trademarks of Brazil, such as samba and bossa nova. Regional folk genres such as musica sertaneja, baião and forró also gain popularity and are heard throughout the entire country.

Brazilian music styles


We all know samba and bossa nova, but Brazilian music is extremely rich and diverse. This is a brief summary of Brazil’s most important music genres:

The First Music Styles

These were some of the first styles that appeared in Brazil:

  • Lundu: brought by African slaves, it is one of the genres that would later compose samba.
  • Frevo: included on UNESCO’s list of intangible heritage, it is the traditional music of Pernambuco’s Carnival. Its trademark is the colorful umbrellas, which would “hide” the forbidden at that time capoeira (Afro-Brazilian martial art and dancing).
  • Choro: (means “cry”) a music gender originated in Rio de Janeiro. It is considered the first characteristic rhythm of Brazilian popular music, and is still very popular nowadays. In spite of its name, it usually has a fast, happy rhythm. Representative artists: Waldir Acevedo, Dominguinhos, Joaquim Callado, Pixinguinha and Luis Gonzaga (the later represents a regional form of choro called baiāo).
  • Maxixe: it is a mix of lundu with Argentinian tango, Cuban habanera and polca. It was considered so scandalous that caught international attention and travelled to Europe, together with tango. Maxixe contributed, together with lundu, to the origins of samba.

Contemporary Brazilian Music

These musical styles are Brazil’s trademark and are all listened nowadays.

Sertanejo

A music style that originated in Brazil’s countryside in the 1920s. It is the most popular music genre in Brazil, particularly throughout the southern/ southeastern and center/ western countryside. Sertanejo has seen a revival in the 90’s, regularly topping Brazilian music charts and earning a specific category at the Latin Grammy Awards. Representative artists: Sergio Reis, Chitãozinho & Xororó and Michel Teló.

Forró

When in 1945 the northeast musician Luiz Gonzaga recorded Dança Mariquinha, the genre  forró was launched – a rhythm and type of dance typical of the Northeast of Brazil. Given the vagueness of the term, there is no consensus on the definition of forró as a musical style, the name being usually used as a generalization of various musical rhythms of Northeast region.  Famous artists include Luiz Gonzaga, Wesley Safadão, and Solange Almeida.

Samba 

The year 1916 is considered the official birth of samba, a mix of maxixe with Bahia folklore rhythms. Samba rapidly spread throughout Brazil dominating not only its iconic carnival, but also the whole world. Samba is the most famous Brazilian musical style, and has many other sub genres:

  • Samba-canção: Appears in the 1920s, with slow rhythms and sentimental lyrics. Example: Ai Ioiô by Luís Peixoto.
  • Carnival Samba: composed by samba marches – known as marchinhas – and made to be danced and sung in carnival events. Examples: Abre alas, Cabeleira do Zezé, among others.
  • Samba-exaltação: With patriotic lyrics highlighting the wonders of Brazil, with orchestral accompaniment. Example: Aquarela do Brasil (see here).
  • Samba de breque: (literally brake samba) This style has moments of quick stops, where the singer includes comments, usually with critical or humorous tone. One of the masters of this style is Moreira da Silva.
  • Samba de gafieira: It was created in 1940 and has orchestral accompaniment. Fast and strong in the instrumental part, it is widely used in ballroom dancing. K-Ximbinho is a famous artist of this genre.
  • Sambalanço: Emerging in the 50s in nightclubs in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, it received a strong influence from jazz. One of the most significant representatives of Sambalanço is Jorge Ben Jor, which mixes elements of other genres too. This style would set the grounds for bossa nova.
  • Pagode: Born in Rio de Janeiro in the 70s, it has a repetitive rhythm and uses percussion instruments and electronic sounds. It spread rapidly throughout Brazil and conquered radios and dance floors in the next decade thanks to its simple and romantic lyrics. Representative artists are Fundo de Quintal, Negritude Jr., Só para contrariar, Raça Negra and Zeca Pagodinho.

Bossa Nova

Bossa nova is a Brazilian popular music movement of the late 50s initiated by João Gilberto, Tom Jobim, Vinicius de Moraes and other young singers and/or songwriters from Rio de Janeiro. The style was derived from samba, with a strong jazz influence. Initially, the term bossa nova (“new wave”) was used only to describe a new way of singing and playing samba.

The ground zero of bossa nova is the song Chega de Saudade (see here). Bossa nova gave a more sophisticated touch to the samba genre; over the years, it would become one of the most influential movements in the history of Brazilian music, and the song Girl from Ipanema would be its anthem.

This style went through many transformations that resulted in a new generation of composers; new artists appeared in the music scenario who were collectively named Sons of bossa nova. Artists such as Geraldo Vandré and Chico Buarque are among the Sons of bossa nova, although their style has little or nothing to do with bossa nova (see MPB).

Tropicália

Originated by the end of the 60s after bossa nova, Tropicália was the next musical movement and came at a time when Brazil was undergoing political upheaval due to a strict military dictatorship. The rebellious lyrics of Tropicalia songs bothered the government, who decided to exile the most influential Tropicália artists, such as Caetano Veloso and Gilberto Gil.

Música Popular Brasileira (MPB)

Appreciated mainly by Brazil’s urban middle classes, Brazilian popular music – known as MPB – emerged in the 1960s with the Sons of Bossa Nova. MPB was the merge of two previously divergent musical movements: bossa nova (representing musical sophistication) and folk music (which defended Brazil’s music roots). As a result of the 1964 dictatorship, the two movements became a broad cultural front against the military regime; this new genre presented at first a distinct nationalistic profile, but with time it comprised more diverse trends of Brazilian music.

MPB also includes other mixtures of rhythms such as samba and rock – giving rise to a new style known as samba-rock – or pop and samba, with famous artists like Gilberto Gil and Chico Buarque. By the end of the 1990s the mixture of Latin music together with reggae and samba gave space to a new genre known as samba-reggae.

Even though extensive, MPB should not be confused as comprising all music of Brazil; it is rather a specific music style.

Funk Carioca

Originated in the 80s in the favelas of Rio de Janeiro, the lyrics ususally describe favela life. In the 2000’s this genre would invade nightclubs, becoming a fashionable style across the country.

Although extremely successful, this genre is the target of strong criticism as performers use obscene and vulgar language, many times inciting to violence and drug consumption. See here for some of the most known funk artists.

Axé Music

Axé emerged in Bahia in the 80s during the Carnival of Salvador. It mixes frevo rhythms, reggae, merengue, forró, maracatu and other african-latino rhythms. The song Fricote by Luiz Caldas, is usually regarded as the starting point of this style.

The word “axé” is a religious greeting which means positive energy, used in Candomblé and Umbanda – religions with African origins which are commonly practiced in Bahia. It quickly spread throughout the country and still enjoyes great commercial success; its biggest names are Daniela Mercury, Ivete Sangalo, Claudia Leitte, Timbalada, among others.

 

References

https://pt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Música_do_Brasil (in Portuguese)

https://web.archive.org/web/20091101115615/http://www.brazilcarnival.com.br/samba_schools/begining-of-samba-brazil-music-origins-of

http://thebrazilbusiness.com/article/brazilian-music-styles

https://theculturetrip.com/south-america/brazil/articles/10-traditional-brazilian-music-genres-you-need-to-know-about/

http://www.greatbrazilianlmusic.com/genres.htm

See also:

Coming soon:

  • The 1960s
  • The 1970s
  • The 1980s 
  • The 1990s
  • The 2000’s
  • 2010-2016